7 Ancient Greek Philosophers

7 Ancient Greek Philosophers

A philosopher is a thinker who produces an idea, ideas, and new thoughts that are wise and useful for civilization and human life. There are so many philosophers or philosophers in this world. It’s just that the famous ones are from Greece, such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Therefore, world civilizations often quote the results of their thoughts for a wiser life.

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1. Aristoteles (385-323 SM)

Aristotle was a Greek philosopher student of Plato. Of the many students of Plato, Aristotle was the most influential in world civilization. When human knowledge is still too general and broad, he divides it into different categories of subjects, such as physics, metaphysics, poetry, biology, mathematics, rhetoric, to politics. Aristotle is indeed a figure in Greek philosophy whose influence is felt to this day.

2. Socrates (469-399 SM)

The Greek philosopher Socrates is a thinker who is very influential in the Western philosophical tradition because of the results / fruits of his thinking. One of his most phenomenal ideas is the Socratic method, which is a form of philosophical study by exploring the implications of the interlocutor’s position to stimulate the emergence of rational thinking and new ideas. Until finally Socrates was executed for destroying the youth’s belief in the gods.

3. Plato (427-347 SM)

Plato was a Greek philosopher student of Socrates who had the same philosophical views as his teacher. However, Plato was a more systematic thinker than his teacher. One of the results of Plato’s thinking is about the idea which according to him is a reality that can actually be recognized by the five senses if from everything that exists. Plato was also the founder of the Platonic Academy in Athens, the first high school in the Western world. In the view of physics, Plato agrees with the thoughts of Pythagoras. Plato always thought it was important for human beings to do physical exercise, mostly if they had purpose of becoming a well known leader of society. Physical exercise or now called sports are also good for health, especially football which turns out to be the most popular sports based on peluitpanjang.com a media that specifically talk about football thoroughly.

4. Zeno Citium (490-430 SM)

Zeno is an ancient philosopher who is slightly different from other philosophers. While many philosophers use reason and knowledge to interpret nature, Zeno spends his time thinking about the paradox of motion and plurality. Zeno also has many self-initiated paradoxes, such as the concept of infinity which was later debated by later generations of philosophers.

5. Thales (620-546 SM)

Thales was a philosopher who produced many ideas, one of which he stated that water is the basic principle (in Greek arche) of all things. Water is the base, principal, and basis of everything that exists in the universe. Thales has also been named the Father of Ancient Philosophy by historians.

6. Pythagoras (570-495 SM)

Pythagoras was a classical Greek philosopher and founder of Pythagoreanism. He was also a mathematician who succeeded in creating the Pythagorean Theorem, one of the key calculations in geometry. Many of Pythagoras’ ideas have influenced modern philosophy. According to the Athens Insiders report, Pythagoras was the first to teach that the shape of the earth was round.

7. Anaxagoras (500-428 SM)

Spinoza Ethics

Spinoza Ethics

Spinoza

Benedict Baruch de Spinoza or better known as Spinoza emphasized that humans are part of nature, what humans experience is a necessary event, with the certainty of the laws of geometry. Human emotions and behavior are not something outside the laws of nature. Soul and body, spirit and body are the same. Humans cannot choose their actions freely. because the actions taken by humans are actually the same as the fall of a stone that is thrown up. Humans only feel free because they do not understand the causes of their actions and the causes that determine why humans want certain things and have certain motivations.

Humans cannot choose what they want and what they don’t want to do, nor can they choose between good and evil. Therefore, Spinoza consequently denies the possibility of judging an action as just or unjust, sinful or meritorious, the judgments themselves being necessarily given. According to Spinoza, an ethic that wants to advocate a change of life makes no sense against the backdrop of determinism. What is possible is an analysis of human actions, motivations, desires, and feelings. Then the question is ethics is nothing more than that? Doesn’t ethics at least want to show how humans can live better, more useful, happier lives? What’s the point of looking for ethics unless people can change?.

Such questions may remain difficult to answer. Spinoza’s situation was similar to that of the Stoics. The Stoics too had a deterministic view, but he wanted to show how a wise person can live more calmly and steadily. From Spinoza, a fairly difficult thought is required. On the basis of the total determinism of thought and content, humans find the possibility that humans can improve the quality of their lives through their own efforts.

The starting point of Spinoza’s teachings is emotion. According to Spinoza, every individual being, human, animal, or whatever is intrinsically trying to defend himself. This effort is called conatus, which is an experiment or basic effort. The basic effort of all providers is to defend themselves. Conatus is identical to the essence of each provider. So whatever exists seeks to defend itself and to increase the power of its activities. The basic effort is encouragement. The basic effort drive is reflected in the consciousness consciousness as desire. Desire is the most basic human emotion. When humans are in the process of transitioning to a stronger state, the desire is in the form of pleasure. Conversely, if the transition to a lower state is reflected as feelings of sadness or pain. Therefore, pleasure, pain, and desire are the three basic human emotions.

Through his ethics, Spinoza tries to explain what we really mean when we judge something as good or bad. Good is all kinds of favors as well as what produces a feeling of pleasure. Evil is any feeling of pain, especially that which thwarts our desires. Similar to the teachings of naturalism and the teachings of Epicurus, Spinoza said that what is good is what we want and bad is what we do not want. According to Spinoza, human emotions are determined, including judgments about good and bad.

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Passive Emotions

At first glance all emotions seem passive. But there are also active emotions, that is, emotions that flow from the spirit insofar as it is active. The more one understands and understands the logical relationship between ideas, the more one is active or not passive.

Active Emotions

Active emotions can only be associated with desires and pleasures, but not with feelings of pain. These active emotions show themselves as strength of heart (fortitudo) and can be divided into courage or magnanimity (animosity) and nobility (generosity).

Spinoza’s ethics taught that in order to progress morally, humans must progress in understanding. Humans must form ideas that are in accordance with reality and are clear, so that human views become correct. Truth means that humans have true ideas, including about themselves. When humans allow themselves to be dominated by passive emotions, we are prevented from getting clear ideas. Human eyes will be closed. Humans understand, and understanding means overcoming the feeling of pain. Understanding is the path to human happiness, freedom from the shackles of negative emotions.

Parmenides: On Nature

Parmenides: On Nature

Parmenides

He was born in 540 BC in the city of Elea, Southern Italy. He became one of the important figures of Greek cosmology where his thoughts were very influential in the fields of metaphysics and epistemology. His thoughts then greatly influenced several philosophers such as Empedocles, Anaxagoras and the atomists. Parmenides founded a school in the phocaean colony of Elea in southern Italy, and the only other important members were his students Zeno and Melissus. So he is considered the founder of the Eleatic School.

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Parmenides Thoughts

Nothing can emerge from nothing. Parmenides came up with the idea that everything that exists must have always existed. Then he developed this idea further, for him there is no change that is really actual, nothing can be something different from before.

Although he realizes that nature is constantly changing, but for him it is the senses that feel that everything is constantly changing, but the mind cannot perceive this actual change. So it seems that he relies on reason to feel the real truth. For him, the human senses give inaccurate pictures of the world and are inconsistent with reason. He thought that the senses only gave humans perceptual illusions. In the end this thought became the forerunner of rationalism.

Monism

Parmenides advocated that we should follow where reason takes us, even if the results are very contrary to our habits. Parmenides concluded that all reality would appear very different to our minds. He refers to what exists in the universal sense and then makes his own original cosmological and metaphysical thoughts that all that exists in the universe is essentially singular. According to him, the world does not seem singular, caused by humans who rely too much on their senses as an excuse, even though it is all just an illusion. The diversity seen by humans is actually just an illusion, because everything has only one essence.

Epistemology and Critique of Ancient Greek Mythology

Parmenides criticized ancient Greek mythology which explains how the process of creation of the universe. For him the explanation given by ancient Greek mythology is trapped by the appearance of the senses so that it is far from the truth caused by the illusion of the senses. He also criticized ancient Greek mythology which used the belief in ‘doxa’ or opinion as an attempt to achieve knowledge. He thought that doxa was a path full of contradictions that influenced knowledge to believe in something that was not real. For him the path of truth ‘aletheia’ or reality is the best path that must be taken by humans in achieving knowledge of the truth that refers to existence in order to approach knowledge that is truly real and not illusory.

Geometrical Manual

Geometrical Manual

Geometrical Manual

This is a help-web to Spinoza Ethica [What it is about: Getting Started Reading Content] . Ethica, like every axiomatic deductive exposition, is a web. In logic and mathematics, every axiomatic deductive structure has a number of starting elements (definitions and axioms) and a number of end elements. Some end elements are chain-linked to all starting elements. Every element links back to some previous premiss-elements, and so on, until you are back at the starting elements. Generally, linking web pages, you can make reciprocal links and looped chains of links that bring you, through some pages, back to the original one. In a deductive structure, such things only happen when proofs are circular and hence the structure is flawed. The pure deductive structure of Ethica is modeled in the Pure Web packed for you to download in DeductiveStructure.zip. I found no loops in Ethica. This Pure Web is the origin of the on line notes Web you are now reading. But to make the notes Web, Ethica is merged again, linking to itself and to hundreds of external notes pages. So you are supposed to work with two webs: the downloaded Pure Web DeductiveStructure.zip and an on-line notes Web. Note that while handling these two webs you may be closer than any reader in the past to what Spinoza, almost beyond reasonable doubt, did himself: he had his propositions on separate sheets and thus could at any moment easily reshuffle, select, subselect and insert propositions while grinding his lenses.

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The Pure Web (to download)

If you download the DeductiveStructure.zip to your computer and import it in a web editor generating a clickable site map (like MS FrontPage and MS ExpressionWeb) you can click through screens as illustrated below, featuring the deductive elements als web pages. You can move an element-page to the centre, and click on an element-page to view it in the editing mode (then, if you want send it to your browser (type F12 in the web editors mentioned). The Pure Web exclusively models Spinoza’s own geometrical opinion concerning what follows from what, as transpires from what he refers to in his demonstrations.

A screen shot of the MS Expression Web links-view of the pure Webproposition {1p11} set centre.
N.B. the 
direction of reference is Left to Right, so the direction of inference is Right to Left

The arrows point to the deductive elements used in the deductive element from where the arrow originates. Hence the argument of Ethica runs to the left. On the left side you will see only propositions (.p..), since definitions (.d..) and axioms (.a..) are always starting points, hence not referring to anything. On the right side you typically see a mix of all types, propositions, axioms, definitions, and philosophical primitives where propositions usually form only a very small minority.

The On line Web

In the on-line web, where you are now, you can also click to notes, and the notes link back to elements not formally used as premises, which should assist the reader in evaluating the meaning of concepts. Understanding all concepts and their logical interrelations is the main challenge when studying Ethica. There are 76 defined concepts. To define them, thousands of other concepts are used, 52 of which have no clear and distinct meaning to every intelligent native English or Latin speaker at once. These 52 are designated philosophical primitivesEach has a note-page where you can click to, showing the concept used in one or more poignant contexts in Ethica.

To the expert

The Spinoza expert will probably go to the on-line notes Web All Entries-view to a locus under consideration and click around, then when things get serious, check the deductive structure in the downloaded “pure”-version to generate maps like the one above. The expert analyzing the overall structure benefits probably most of the geometrical report and its links.