The Meaning and Symbolism of the Palm Cross

The Meaning and Symbolism of the Palm Cross

The palm tree stands tall and iconic, its presence a testament to endurance and fortitude. With its robust trunk, it anchors itself firmly, radiating a quiet strength amidst its surroundings.

Throughout human history, palms have been revered and held in high esteem. The ancient civilizations harnessed the benefits of date palms, utilizing them for shade, nutrition from their fruits, and as a valuable resource for construction. The palm leaf has always been simbol kemenangan achieved with honor and sincerity, a symbolism evident every time its fronds dance gracefully with the breeze.

Drawing from ancient Greek lore, the palm leaf was an emblem associated with Nike, the deity representing victory. It was customary for champions of the Olympic Games to be honored with these very leaves, further cementing their significance.

The Historical Roots of the Palm Cross

In the ancient realms of South and Southeast Asia, the scarcity of paper was palpable. Yet, the rich tapestry of their cultures and narratives demanded a canvas, and dried palm leaves became their medium of choice.

Dating back to the 5th century BCE, and perhaps even before, civilizations stretching from the Middle East to Vietnam harnessed the resilience of palm leaves for recording their tales. These leaves underwent a meticulous process of drying, smoking, and shaping into rectangular slabs. Eventually, they were bound with twine, crafting them into manuscripts that bore witness to their times.

Significance of Palm Sunday in Palm Cross Symbolism

In the days leading up to His resurrection, Jesus made a monumental entry into Jerusalem. Instead of arriving as a dominant force on a horse, He chose the humble path, riding in on a donkey, embodying peace over power. This serene procession soon took a tragic turn when, by the week’s end, He was captured and crucified.

For Christians globally, this significant Sunday is commemorated as Palm Sunday, marking the onset of the sacred Holy Week. As Jesus made his iconic entry, his devoted followers blanketed his path with palm leaves, emblematic of his peaceful yet victorious journey.

Now, on Palm Sunday, the tradition continues as believers hold aloft palm leaves, echoing that historic procession. In regions of Europe, where genuine palm leaves were scarce, alternatives like tree branches were used, giving rise to other names, such as Yew Sunday.

Cultural and Spiritual Importance of Palms in Domestic Settings

Palms might not tower at their full height indoors, but as houseplants, they’re a favorite choice. With their remarkable vertical growth, they can add a sense of expansiveness to rooms, transforming even narrow spaces with their verdant presence.

Though thousands of palm species exist, only a handful are commonly found as indoor plants. These are typically adaptable to rooms with moderate to good lighting. Ensure their soil remains moist but well-drained to prevent root rot.

Beyond their aesthetic appeal, palms are renowned for their air-purifying qualities. Areca, Dwarf Date, and Bamboo palms, for instance, are listed by NASA as top performers in removing airborne toxins. Be aware, however, that palms can be susceptible to spider mites. Regular misting of their leaves can help in managing this issue.

Take caution when considering pruning a palm. Their growth originates from a central stem, and cutting it for height control could be detrimental. If your palm reaches the ceiling, consider gifting it to someone with a more accommodating space. As for yellowing or browning leaves, be patient before removing them; palms are known to extract vital nutrients from these aging leaves.

Philosophy: The Path to the Meaning of Life

The Path to the Meaning of Life

Philosophy probes the profound questions concerning human reality, God, and nature. It challenges what is accepted unquestionably in society, shaping our minds to perceive the distinction between a general worldview and our personal perception of the world.

Philosophy must be experienced, not mastered as one would memorize a physics formula. Aristotle had his own physics, dividing the universe into two parts: terrestrial and celestial. But pondering how Aristotle arrived at this division, with the terrestrial formed from a combination of water, earth, air, and fire, is the spirit of philosophy that must be embraced.

Philosophy should encourage its students to disagree with Kant, considering current situations that differ greatly from past philosophical speculations. Kant, for instance, argued that whoever emits CO2 into the atmosphere must pay compensation. Yet, we may reconsider Kant. This ethical responsibility could not be applied to 18th-century CO2 emissions since scientific data were not available to show that CO2 emissions were harmful.

From a general moral theory standpoint, an individual might be less accountable in a situation where they are epistemically incompetent. Or a robot helping an elderly woman in a hospital does not diminish her dignity. Philosophy must critique that the Lapindo mudflow was not caused by surrounding earthquakes (bogus science) but by drilling beyond the earth’s allowable layer (genuine science). Philosophy observes that human smuggling isn’t inherently wrong if an African immigrant is forced to pay a smuggler to reach Europe to earn money for their family.

Each generation indeed gives birth to its unique philosophical perspectives. I remember the logic lectures (Marian Talbot from Oxford and Otto Gusti Madung in 2014); deontic logic states that deception is wrong. Thus, do not deceive at all, while temporal logic reveals that formulations constructed in the early 2000s might be less suitable now.

Philosophy should make us realize that studying philosophy is not merely about naming philosophers and expressing their exact thoughts. Philosophy should provide a reason to study and even correct Kant, “samen met Kant tegen Kant,” reminding us that philosophy is an excellent science for continuous individual and collective historical reflection.

One may memorize the classical utilitarianism of Jeremy Bentham and the developments by John Stuart Mill but may fail to apply Mill’s teachings in their study room. Bentham stated that if a pig’s satisfaction is 90% and Samuel’s is 50%, the pig’s must be far better.

However, Mill argued that it’s better to be a dissatisfied Socrates than a satisfied fool, distinguishing intellectual satisfaction from reading a novel and physical satisfaction from eating red rice. But, in the context of Flores, Mill could be offensive to small farmers with no time to read.

Or one may know Aristotle’s moral theory perfectly: knowing what to do, doing what’s right, and doing it for the right reason, but may still fail to do what’s accepted as right for the right reasons.

I conclude by drawing inspiration from Parmenides: “Only one story of this journey remains: that something exists. On this path of the journey, there are many signs about existence: that is complete, unique, perfect, and never cracked” (Parmenides: The Way of Truth). Philosophy is a lifelong pilgrimage that can only sustain itself through continuous, uncracked subject exploration, and it exists. Philosophy is the path to the meaning of life.

The Art of Understanding According to Schleiermacher


The Art of Understanding is a term declared by Schleiermacher in his hermeneutics. He saw hermeneutics as the “Art of Understanding”. Understanding is of course different from knowing. Those who know have not come to understand.

Understanding is the activity of capturing meaning. While knowing is nothing more than the act of gathering data. Data can be known by something, for example: genes, neurons and computers, while meaning can only be understood by someone. What does it mean to “understand” and why is this activity considered an “art”? We will find the answer in the philosophical ideas promoted by Schleiermacher.

A Glimpse of Schleiermacher’s Life

This time I would like to invite readers to philosophize with Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (1768–1834). Schleiermacher is known as a philosopher and founder of modern Protestant theology who lived in the Romantic era. Romanticism is nothing but a movement critical of the enlightenment of the 18th century.

Romantic thinkers saw the progress of Europe’s science, industry and technology at that time as a decline rather than progress of civilization. On that basis, romantic thinkers were more interested in myths, traditions and religion as objects of interpretation studies. They try to explore the meaning behind this ancient wisdom and then live it anew. Schleiermacher was deeply influenced by the Romantic movement.

Schleiermacher was born on November 21, 1768 in Breslau, Silesia in what is now Poland. He grew up in a Protestant family. His parents even planned that Schleiermacher would be prepared as early as possible to become a preacher.

Schleiermacher then entered into a seminary in Barby/Elbe. At the seminary, Schleiermacher became acquainted with philosophical literature, theology and non-religious romances. This made him confused, between becoming a preacher or a scientist.

This hesitation prompted Schleiermacher to pursue philosophy, theology and philology at the University of Halle. There, he even – for the first time – became acquainted with Kant’s critical philosophy. From the time Schleiermacher taught at Halle in 1805, he began to concern himself with hermeneutics. He died in Berlin on February 6, 1834. Since then, Schleiermacher is known as the founding father of Modern Hermeneutics.

About Hermeneutics

Budi Hardiman in his book entitled “The Art of Understanding: From Schleiermacher to Derrida”, emphasizes that the term “Hermeneutics” is actually not a term that has just appeared in modern times. This term can even be traced in the religious culture of ancient Greece. Hermeneutics etymology is related to the figure of Hermes, who mediates between gods/goddesses and humans.

In Greek mythology, Hermes served as the party that conveyed the messages of the goddesses to humans. However, before Hermes delivered the message, he first understood or interpreted the message for himself. After he understands the intent of the message, then he articulates the intent of the message in a language understood by humans. The gap between the sender of the message, the sender of the message and the recipient of the message must be bridged by this activity called “hermeneutics”.

Hermeneutics in English is called “Hermeneutics”. This term is derived from the Greek word, namely: “hermeneuein” which means “to translate” or “to act as an interpreter”. The activity of translating one language into another is actually nothing but what we call “Hermeneutics”.

The activity of translating is actually not just exchanging a foreign language into our own. More than that, translating is interpreting so that it can be articulated in the taste of our language. In other words, translating is the activity of capturing meaning according to the author’s intent in a language that readers understand.

It should be noted that early hermeneutics was nothing more than an activity carried out by clergy in order to interpret sacred texts, such as holy books. This activity aims to reveal the meaning of Divine Revelation written in sacred texts. The different ways or methods of interpreting then give birth to different and even contradictory interpretations.

This happened in the early development of Christianity. Since its inception, Christianity has been peppered with hermeneutical polemics. The Christian congregation in the city of Alexandria has a way of interpreting the scriptures that is different from the Christian congregation in Antioch.

The divisions that occurred in western Christianity, namely: between the Roman Catholic Church and the Protestant Reformers were rooted in different ways of interpreting Scripture.

So, since when did hermeneutics become a philosophical problem? We should be grateful to the thinkers of the renaissance in the 18th century who brought out hermeneutical activities from the medieval religious cage. If the medieval clergy limited hermeneutics to the interpretation of scriptures, the Enlightenment thinkers extended the field of interpretation to profane texts. Enlightenment thinkers even looked at the scriptures the same as other profane texts. In the minds of enlightened thinkers, sacred texts are no more special than other texts.

Enlightenment thinkers uprooted the sacredness of the books considered sacred by medieval clergy. Enlightenment thinkers wanted to go beyond radical medieval ways of interpreting a text. In other words, they use rationality – without being driven to strengthen their faith – in order to grasp the meaning behind the sacred texts. That’s what Schleiermacher will do.

The Art of Understanding a la Schleiermacher

We first understand what Schleiermacher meant by the term “understand” (verstehen). According to Schleiermacher, understanding is nothing but the activity of capturing understanding (verständis). While understanding is the result of the process of understanding. The object of understanding activity a la Schleiermacher is none other than language. However, please note that

What is captured from the language is not words as far as words or sentences as far as sentences. In everyday life we often try to catch the meaning behind the words of people who are talking to us. Because for Schleiermacher, the spoken word is never separated from the thoughts of the speaker.

He further emphasized that humans do not think about the same thing, even though they use the same word. A philosopher and a doctor both use the word “human” but their perspectives on this one word are of course different and even contradictory.

Understanding in Schleiermacher is thus the activity of capturing what is thought rather than the grammatical meaning of the language being spoken by the speaker. Therefore, we need to distinguish between “understanding what is said in the context of language with its possibilities” and “understanding (what is said) as a fact in the mind of the speaker”.

Hermeneutics a la Schleiermacher actually tries to capture what the speaker understands by the word he is saying. In everyday life, we often encounter discrepancies between the text and the intent of the text, between the words and the thoughts of the speakers, and between the text and the author’s intent. This gap tends to give rise to misunderstandings.

Misunderstanding then has the potential to cause racial, social, religious conflict and so on.

Then why is understanding a la Schleiermacher considered an art (Kunst)? In order to understand this term, we first need to distinguish between two types of understanding, namely: “understanding spontaneously and understanding with effort”. Understanding spontaneously can be felt in our lives every day. We will easily understand the words of our parents, because we are born and live in the same social, cultural and religious environment. In this context, we understand each other spontaneously.

However, Schleiermacher did not develop such a hermeneutic. The starting point of hermeneutics a la Schleiermacher is nothing but a misunderstanding or lack of mutual understanding. For Schleiermacher, misunderstanding characterizes modern society. Modernity, which is characterized by a plurality of ways of thinking, ways of life, religious beliefs, philosophical beliefs and ideological pluralism, is prone to misunderstandings. Or in Schleiermacher’s words, “in modern times, misunderstandings are inevitable”.

Misconception has become an indisputable fact, in modern times.

Schleiermacher further emphasized that misunderstandings are often caused by prejudice (Vorurteil). Prejudice occurs when readers or listeners feel their perspective is superior to the intent of the author or speaker of the word.

Therefore, understanding in this case can be said to be an art for two reasons: First, because efforts to overcome common misunderstandings are always using “sophisticated” methods and not just spontaneously. Second, because overcoming common misunderstandings is always done with certain rules. Art, in this case is defined as ‘smartness’. This is the same as when a music artist produces beautiful harmonic tones.

The art of understanding is thus the activity of capturing meaning (with sophisticated methods) to overcome common misunderstandings. What you are looking for is the thinking behind a

Expression. In this sense, hermeneutics is nothing but the art of listening rather than the art of speaking, the art of reading rather than the art of writing. Schleiermacher asserted that hermeneutics is nothing but the art of thinking and therefore is philosophical in nature.

With that way of thinking, Schleiermacher made hermeneutics a method in order to capture the meaning behind speech or writing. The use of hermeneutics methodology is not limited to specific texts. For him, all texts, whether spoken or written, can be interpreted in the same way. In fact, interpretation has become an ability possessed by every human being.

Schleiermacher’s art of understanding is nothing but an attempt to capture the meaning of text (written or spoken) both from a grammatical point of view and the objective condition of the writer or speaker. If the writer expresses his thoughts through writing in the form of sentences, then the interpreter tries to use the language (sentences) to understand the mental objective condition of the writer or speaker.

Thus, the interpreter is able to understand every writing and utterance based on the perspective of the writer or speaker. According to Schleiermacher, this kind of hermeneutical methodology is effective in overcoming misunderstandings in modern social, cultural and religious life.

Benefits of Studying Philosophy

Benefits of Studying Philosophy

Philosophy is knowledge and intellectual investigation of all phenomena in depth. In studying philosophy, one is required to have the courage to learn various unusual terms and to understand various long and complicated reasonings. When deciding to study philosophy, you must be able to think logically and openly.

It should be noted that reading philosophy books contextually is still difficult for ordinary people to understand. Therefore, to study philosophy through text, it is necessary to study the basics of logic first so that you are trained to think logically and systematically. If you are used to it, studying philosophy will be fun.

Think Critically and Logically

Teaches to Think Critically and Logically

Studying philosophy certainly has various benefits. One of the most commonly known benefits is teaching them to think critically and logically. Philosophy itself is a means of testing scientific reasoning, so as to make a person critical and careful in his field of knowledge.

Critical thinking will prevent someone from being solipsistic and thinking that his opinion is the most correct. In addition, by thinking critically and logically, it will be easier to filter fake news. The mind is also more open, thus avoiding intolerance.

Find Value in Life

Helps Find Value in Life

The next benefit of studying philosophy is that it helps discover the value of life. It’s no secret that someone often asks what is the meaning of life and what do we live for. By studying philosophy, such questions will be easier to answer.

Philosophy is able to provide understanding and views about life and the world. This is what makes it a source of inspiration and a guide for life in various aspects. By finding the values of life, a person will become wiser in dealing with all the problems that are being faced.

Developing Science and Technology

Developing Science and Technology

Studying philosophy apparently also plays a role in the development of science and technology. Please note that the philosophy of science provides the foundations for life as well as other sciences. Therefore, the philosophy of science is useful in developing science and technology whose existence is able to make life better.

Philosophy of science apparently is not only useful for neutralizing various findings of knowledge but also thinking about how this knowledge is useful in life. Thus, science and technology are not only present for the benefit of humans, but also for the benefit of nature. Studying philosophy makes a person able to understand science as a whole and use it as a basis for learning.

Various Flows in Philosophy that Need to be Known



It should be noted that in philosophy there are various schools that need to be known. One of them is the flow of rationalism which adheres to reason. This school prioritizes reason as the only reliable source of knowledge because reason is the most important tool in acquiring and testing knowledge.

Reason has the ability to solve various life problems. Rational understanding argues that truth is in accordance with evidence-based on facts, not from experience alone. The purpose of reason here is logical thinking, so that all logical things can be confirmed to be true.



The next stream that needs to be known is idealism. Idealism is a school of philosophy that prioritizes the soul. You could say that idealism is the opposite of the flow of rationalism. Because in the flow of idealism assumes that knowledge where psychological processes are subjective.

One of the philosophers with the flow of idealism is Plato. According to him, the mind is the original image of a spiritual nature and the soul lies between the original image and the image of the world that is captured by the five senses. It is this view that makes idealism often seen as the opposite of realism.



Empiricism is the next philosophical stream that needs to be known. This flow emphasizes the role of experience and downplays the role of reason in acquiring knowledge. Unlike rationalism, which only relies on reason, empiricism requires sensory evidence to determine truth.

The flow of empiricism is guided by the experience that has been passed. According to this flow, knowledge can be obtained through experience with the intermediary of the senses. It should be noted that this truth based on experience has succeeded in having an impact on the field of law and human rights.



The next current in philosophy is materialism. It does not require grandiose and abstract propositions, the flow of materialism adheres to facts that are clear and easy to understand. Materialism holds that something that is stated as a fact is a material.

The material itself can be interpreted as materials, objects, and everything that appears. Material-oriented people are called materialists. A materialist is more concerned with material things and leaves aside everything that transcends the senses.



Positivism is the next trend in philosophy that needs to be known. This flow is a perspective based on science or oriented to natural science. So it can be said that positivism focuses on real facts and overrides things that are outside reality.

It can be said that positivism is close to empiricism because they both believe that knowledge is based on experience based on the senses. The figures of the positivism school argue that humans will never know anything more than what they have seen and found based on real facts.

Learn Philosophy by Reading Philosophy Books

Reading Philosophy Books

Understanding philosophy is not only for students majoring in philosophy. Those of you who are interested in various aspects of life can explore it through various philosophy books.

Therefore, on this occasion, we have some recommendations for philosophy books that can be a reference for you.

Many say philosophy courses are difficult and complicated. Apparently, philosophy teaches you how to seek truth, ideas, and knowledge in this life. By studying various philosophical studies, many insights will open up and of course, you can also write down ideas, discuss and then debate them with your friends or lecturers.

You have to start reading philosophical works, not just reading one work of a philosopher. But must explore the thoughts of various philosophers.

There are several books in the form of novels that can bring you closer to philosophy. Both for beginners and for professionals who want to deepen their philosophy.

Getting to Know Famous Philosophers

Famous Philosophers Aristotle


The first philosopher who is impossible to miss for those of you who want to study philosophy is Aristotle. Aristotle has contributed so much thought to science, including religion. So many religions in the world harmonize their religious teachings with Aristotle’s thoughts.

One of his thoughts that is widely used today is the theory of the syllogism, namely the method of drawing conclusions from two premises containing facts. Not only that, but Aristotle has also studied and contributed a lot of knowledge in various fields of science. Among them are art, literature, government, economics, society, and others.

Famous Philosophers Plato


Plato was one of the three great philosophers from Greece, along with his partner Socrates and his student, Aristotle. Plato’s most famous thought is the Trias Politica. According to Plato, to achieve a good government, it means that there are three things that a state needs to have, namely the executive, legislative, and judicial bodies. This is stated in his book entitled Republic.

Plato’s thinking was finally used by every country that upholds democracy to date. Apart from writing about government, Plato also wrote about metaphysics, ethics, and education. All of his thought contributions provide additional knowledge for education today.
Paul of Tarsus

For Christians, the name Paul means a prophet or apostle. His name is Paul of Tarsus. Tarsus itself is a region in Turkey at the mouth of the river Tarsus Çay in the Mediterranean Sea. Paul was a loyal follower of Jesus from Nazareth. Paul’s meeting with Jesus occurred when Jesus was on his way to Damascus.

Paul wrote the story of his journey and thoughts based on the life of Jesus Christ. Until now, many of his thoughts have survived and are used by world Christians.

Famous Philosophers Rene Descartes

Rene Descartes

Turning to France, there is the name Rene Descartes. The great name of this philosopher is due to the contribution of his thoughts which are so great. Descartes’ name is also called the founder of modern philosophy and of course also known as the father of modern mathematics. Descartes’ first work entitled “Regulae ad Directionem Ingeni” was his unfinished work.

In late 1968, he had a disagreement with Chandoux, another well-known philosopher of the era. Descartes’ concept of science is very different from Chandoux’s. Because, according to Chandoux, science can or can only be built from various possibilities. However, for Descartes, knowledge can only be built based on facts or strong reasons.

As a result, there is a lot of knowledge that is present, thanks to Chandoux’s previous thoughts which have begun to be doubted by many parties. Descartes’ thought is what is called rationalism.

Famous Philosophers Confucius


In China, there was a thinker who was considered the Great Teacher named Confucius. His teachings about morals and goodness teach his adherents to always live harmonious life. Confucius was known as someone who loved to learn. Even Western thinkers like Leibniz and Voltaire were also inspired by Confucius’ thoughts.

Confucius’ teachings became a “religion” for people in China and East Asia called Confucianism. In China itself, Confucianism is called Confucianism. Therefore, for followers of the Confucian religion, Confucius is considered a prophet.

Confucius’ teachings are so strong and influential in East Asia such as Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and throughout the world.

7 Ancient Greek Philosophers

filsuf yunani kuno

A philosopher is a thinker who produces an idea, ideas, and new thoughts that are wise and useful for civilization and human life. There are so many philosophers or philosophers in this world. It’s just that the famous ones are from Greece, such as Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. Therefore, world civilizations often quote the results of their thoughts for a wiser life.

Read Now: Spinoza Ethics

1. Aristoteles (385-323 SM)

Aristotle was a Greek philosopher student of Plato. Of the many students of Plato, Aristotle was the most influential in world civilization. When human knowledge is still too general and broad, he divides it into different categories of subjects, such as physics, metaphysics, poetry, biology, mathematics, rhetoric, to politics. Aristotle is indeed a figure in Greek philosophy whose influence is felt to this day.

2. Socrates (469-399 SM)

The Greek philosopher Socrates is a thinker who is very influential in the Western philosophical tradition because of the results / fruits of his thinking. One of his most phenomenal ideas is the Socratic method, which is a form of philosophical study by exploring the implications of the interlocutor’s position to stimulate the emergence of rational thinking and new ideas. Until finally Socrates was executed for destroying the youth’s belief in the gods.

3. Plato (427-347 SM)

Plato was a Greek philosopher student of Socrates who had the same philosophical views as his teacher. However, Plato was a more systematic thinker than his teacher. One of the results of Plato’s thinking is about the idea which according to him is a reality that can actually be recognized by the five senses if from everything that exists. Plato was also the founder of the Platonic Academy in Athens, the first high school in the Western world. In the view of physics, Plato agrees with the thoughts of Pythagoras. Plato always thought it was important for human beings to do physical exercise, mostly if they had purpose of becoming a well known leader of society. Physical exercise or now called sports are also good for health, especially football which turns out to be the most popular sports based on a media that specifically talk about football thoroughly.

4. Zeno Citium (490-430 SM)

Zeno is an ancient philosopher who is slightly different from other philosophers. While many philosophers use reason and knowledge to interpret nature, Zeno spends his time thinking about the paradox of motion and plurality. Zeno also has many self-initiated paradoxes, such as the concept of infinity which was later debated by later generations of philosophers.

5. Thales (620-546 SM)

Thales was a philosopher who produced many ideas, one of which he stated that water is the basic principle (in Greek arche) of all things. Water is the base, principal, and basis of everything that exists in the universe. Thales has also been named the Father of Ancient Philosophy by historians.

6. Pythagoras (570-495 SM)

Pythagoras was a classical Greek philosopher and founder of Pythagoreanism. He was also a mathematician who succeeded in creating the Pythagorean Theorem, one of the key calculations in geometry. Many of Pythagoras’ ideas have influenced modern philosophy. According to the Athens Insiders report, Pythagoras was the first to teach that the shape of the earth was round.

7. Anaxagoras (500-428 SM)

The Best Philosophy Books Recommendations

philosophy books

We often skip philosophy books because we find them hard to read. Actually, this book gives us a good philosophy of life. Currently, there are many philosophy books with language arrangements that are easier to understand. In fact, there are also several philosophy books made in the form of novels.

Don’t hesitate to read philosophy books to see a wider view of life. Therefore, we have 10 recommendations for philosophy books that many consider being the best in the world:

  1. “Meditations” by Marcus Aurelius
  2. Plato’s “The Republic”.
  3. “Nicomachean Ethics” by Aristotle
  4. “The Analects” by Confucius
  5. “Thus Spoke Zarathustra” by Friedrich Nietzsche
  6. “Being and Time” by Martin Heidegger
  7. Plato’s “The Apology”.
  8. “The Consolation of Philosophy” by Boethius
  9. “Discourse on Method” by René Descartes
  10. “Critique of Pure Reason” by Immanuel Kant

These are just a few of the many widely acclaimed best philosophy books, and personal preference can vary depending on individual interests and understanding of philosophy. Let’s review one by one.

Meditations by Marcus Aurelius

Meditations is a book of philosophy written by Marcus Aurelius, a Roman Emperor and Stoic philosopher. Contains dairy notes and philosophical thoughts recorded by Aurelius for himself, and generally discusses topics such as acceptance, calm, tolerance, and how to live life with integrity and simplicity.

The Meditations cover several important subjects in Stoic philosophy, such as self-concept, happiness, and moral duty. Aurelius emphasizes the importance of understanding that things beyond our control must be accepted with grace and that we must focus on the things we can control, such as our actions and reactions to situations.

The Meditations book also covers topics such as wisdom, empathy, and tolerance for others. Aurelius stressed the importance of understanding that all people have their own feelings and thoughts and that we should show compassion and compassion towards others.

As a whole, “Meditations” offers a broad and deep philosophical thought that is still relevant today, and is widely studied and applied by philosophers, thinkers, and cultural practitioners. This book is a source of inspiration for many people who are looking for a deeper understanding of the philosophy of life and how to live life with serenity, simplicity and integrity.

The Republic by Plato

The Republic is a philosophy book written by Plato, one of the leading ancient Greek philosophers. This book contains discussions between Socrates and various other figures on various philosophical topics, such as human rights, moral duty, justice, and idealism.

The Republic discusses various matters regarding society and justice, including debates about what is the main task of a leader and how to build a just society. Plato proposed that justice could be achieved only through a political system based on three classes namely the philosopher-king, the official, and the people.

Besides that, it also discusses topics such as unconscious concepts, thoughts, and reality, and discusses the philosophy of idealism, namely the belief that the world we see around us is only a picture of the real world.

Overall, the philosophy book “The Republic” is one of the most important and well-known philosophical books in the history of philosophy, and is still studied and understood today. This book has had a profound influence on western philosophy and culture and is a source of inspiration for many thinkers and philosophers, including Aristotle, Rousseau, and many others.

Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle

Nicomachean Ethics deals with various things about moral duty, namely, what we must do to live rightly. Aristotle proposed that the ultimate moral duty is to achieve perfection and happiness through good moral practices. This book also covers topics such as contemplation, work, and relationships with others, and explains how to find true happiness through these.

The Nicomachean Ethics book also discusses various things about justice, namely how to treat others fairly and how to build a just society. Aristotle proposed that justice consists of several elements, including distributive justice, contractual justice, and retributive justice.

The Analects by Confucius

The Analects is a philosophy book written by Confucius, one of China’s foremost philosophers. This book contains a collection of quotes and conversations by Confucius and his students on various philosophical topics, such as morals, duty, and justice.

This book also discusses various matters of morality, namely how to live well and how to treat others properly. Confucius emphasized the importance of understanding and performing righteous moral duties, and discussed various matters of how to attain maturity and achieve perfection. Confucius proposed that justice could be achieved through a number of things, including respect for parents, hard work, and an understanding of moral duty.

Overall, “The Analects” is one of the most important and well-known philosophical books in the history of Chinese philosophy, and it is still studied and understood today. This book had a profound influence on Chinese philosophy and culture and was a source of inspiration for many thinkers and philosophers, including Mencius, Xunzi, and many others.

Thus Spoke Zarathustra by Friedrich Nietzsche

Thus Spoke Zarathustra is a philosophical book written by Friedrich Nietzsche, one of the leading German philosophers of the 19th century. This book is a collection of philosophical essays that follow the adventures of a philosopher named Zarathustra and discuss topics such as truth, happiness, and justice.

It also discusses various things about truth, namely, what is right and wrong, and how to understand the truth. Nietzsche proposes that truth is relative and different for each person, and discusses how to understand the truth in the context of personal life.

This book also covers topics such as happiness, namely how to achieve true happiness, and how to understand what makes a person happy. Nietzsche proposed that true happiness can be achieved through a number of things, including creativity, freedom, and individuality.

The Apology by Plato

The Apology is a philosophical book written by Plato, a student of the famous Greek philosopher, Socrates. This book contains Socrates’ speech before the Athenian judges and society in 399 BC, when he was accused of mystical practices and influencing youth with his thoughts.

In his speech, Socrates defends himself against the accusations made against him and discusses several things about philosophy and life. He explained how he always tried to understand the truth and help others understand it. He also discussed how he understood death and how to prepare to die.

Overall, “The Apology” is an important philosophical book because it provides insights into how Greek philosophers, such as Socrates, understood philosophy and lived. This book is still studied and understood today and has had a profound influence on Western philosophy and culture.

Being and Time by Martin Heidegger

Being and Time is a philosophical book published by Martin Heidegger, a German philosopher, in 1927. This book is one of the most important and influential philosophical works in the history of Western philosophy.

In this book, Heidegger seeks to understand and explain the human experience of reality and time. He argues that the human experience of reality and time is very important for philosophy and needs to be understood in depth. Heidegger tries to understand this by considering how humans interact with the world and how humans understand themselves.

Being and Time also addresses topics such as ontology, which is the study of the nature and essence of reality, and epistemology, which is the study of how we know things and how we make sense of the world. Heidegger argues that ontology and epistemology are closely related to each other and must be understood together.

Overall, “Being and Time” is a philosophical book that explains how humans understand the world and themselves, and how philosophy can help us understand these things. This book is a source of inspiration for modern philosophers and is still studied and analyzed today.

The Consolation of Philosophy by Boethius

The Consolation of Philosophy is a philosophy book written by Boethius, a Roman philosopher and Latin writer, in the 6th century AD. This book contains a dialogue between Boethius and a female philosopher named Lady Philosophy. In this dialogue, Lady Philosophy helps Boethius understand and overcome the life problems he faces, including sadness and disappointment.

This book covers some of the important things about philosophy, including the nature of happiness, how to understand reality, and how to understand happiness and sadness. Lady Philosophy also discusses how to understand justice and how to understand the concept of time.

Overall, “The Consolation of Philosophy” is a philosophy book that provides insightful and useful insights into several important issues in philosophy, including happiness, reality, and justice. This book is very important and has had a great influence on the history of Western philosophy and is still being studied and understood today.

Philosophy book “Discourse on Method” by René Descartes

Discourse on Method is a philosophy book written by René Descartes, a French philosopher, and mathematician, in 1637. This book contains a discussion of the methodology of philosophy and how Descartes understood philosophy and mathematics.

In his “Discourse on Method”, Descartes discusses how he started his philosophical process and how he came to understand reality and knowledge. He introduced the principle of “Cogito ergo sum”, namely the principle that man can only understand himself and that he has a definite existence. Descartes also discussed how he understood mathematics and how he used the methodology of philosophy to understand other things.

Overall, “Discourse on Method” is a philosophy book that introduces some of Descartes’ important philosophical opinions and explains how he understood philosophy and mathematics.

Critique of Pure Reason by Immanuel Kant

The last philosophy book is the work of Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher who was written in 1781 under the name Critique of Pure. It consists of 3 criticisms written by Kant.

In “Critique of Pure Reason”, Kant discusses how humans understand the world and how humans use reason to understand the world. He discusses how reason affects human understanding of the world and how this affects human understanding of reality. Kant also discusses how humans understand concepts such as space and time and how humans understand moral concepts.

Those are our version of 10 philosophy books. The main consideration in choosing a philosophy book is the topic. The right topic will make your enthusiasm for completing a philosophy book even higher. Also consider the language used so that it is easy to read. Enjoy reading philosophy books!

Spinoza Ethics

Spinoza Ethics


Benedict Baruch de Spinoza or better known as Spinoza emphasized that humans are part of nature, what humans experience is a necessary event, with the certainty of the laws of geometry. Human emotions and behavior are not something outside the laws of nature. Soul and body, spirit and body are the same. Humans cannot choose their actions freely. because the actions taken by humans are actually the same as the fall of a stone that is thrown up. Humans only feel free because they do not understand the causes of their actions and the causes that determine why humans want certain things and have certain motivations.

Humans cannot choose what they want and what they don’t want to do, nor can they choose between good and evil. Therefore, Spinoza consequently denies the possibility of judging an action as just or unjust, sinful or meritorious, the judgments themselves being necessarily given. According to Spinoza, an ethic that wants to advocate a change of life makes no sense against the backdrop of determinism. What is possible is an analysis of human actions, motivations, desires, and feelings. Then the question is ethics is nothing more than that? Doesn’t ethics at least want to show how humans can live better, more useful, happier lives? What’s the point of looking for ethics unless people can change?.

Such questions may remain difficult to answer. Spinoza’s situation was similar to that of the Stoics. The Stoics too had a deterministic view, but he wanted to show how a wise person can live more calmly and steadily. From Spinoza, a fairly difficult thought is required. On the basis of the total determinism of thought and content, humans find the possibility that humans can improve the quality of their lives through their own efforts.

The starting point of Spinoza’s teachings is emotion. According to Spinoza, every individual being, human, animal, or whatever is intrinsically trying to defend himself. This effort is called conatus, which is an experiment or basic effort. The basic effort of all providers is to defend themselves. Conatus is identical to the essence of each provider. So whatever exists seeks to defend itself and to increase the power of its activities. The basic effort is encouragement. The basic effort drive is reflected in the consciousness consciousness as desire. Desire is the most basic human emotion. When humans are in the process of transitioning to a stronger state, the desire is in the form of pleasure. Conversely, if the transition to a lower state is reflected as feelings of sadness or pain. Therefore, pleasure, pain, and desire are the three basic human emotions.

Through his ethics, Spinoza tries to explain what we really mean when we judge something as good or bad. Good is all kinds of favors as well as what produces a feeling of pleasure. Evil is any feeling of pain, especially that which thwarts our desires. Similar to the teachings of naturalism and the teachings of Epicurus, Spinoza said that what is good is what we want and bad is what we do not want. According to Spinoza, human emotions are determined, including judgments about good and bad.

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Passive Emotions

At first glance all emotions seem passive. But there are also active emotions, that is, emotions that flow from the spirit insofar as it is active. The more one understands and understands the logical relationship between ideas, the more one is active or not passive.

Active Emotions

Active emotions can only be associated with desires and pleasures, but not with feelings of pain. These active emotions show themselves as strength of heart (fortitudo) and can be divided into courage or magnanimity (animosity) and nobility (generosity).

Spinoza’s ethics taught that in order to progress morally, humans must progress in understanding. Humans must form ideas that are in accordance with reality and are clear, so that human views become correct. Truth means that humans have true ideas, including about themselves. When humans allow themselves to be dominated by passive emotions, we are prevented from getting clear ideas. Human eyes will be closed. Humans understand, and understanding means overcoming the feeling of pain. Understanding is the path to human happiness, freedom from the shackles of negative emotions.

Parmenides: On Nature


He was born in 540 BC in the city of Elea, Southern Italy. He became one of the important figures of Greek cosmology where his thoughts were very influential in the fields of metaphysics and epistemology. His thoughts then greatly influenced several philosophers such as Empedocles, Anaxagoras and the atomists. Parmenides founded a school in the phocaean colony of Elea in southern Italy, and the only other important members were his students Zeno and Melissus. So he is considered the founder of the Eleatic School.

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Parmenides Thoughts

Nothing can emerge from nothing. Parmenides came up with the idea that everything that exists must have always existed. Then he developed this idea further, for him there is no change that is really actual, nothing can be something different from before.

Although he realizes that nature is constantly changing, but for him it is the senses that feel that everything is constantly changing, but the mind cannot perceive this actual change. So it seems that he relies on reason to feel the real truth. For him, the human senses give inaccurate pictures of the world and are inconsistent with reason. He thought that the senses only gave humans perceptual illusions. In the end this thought became the forerunner of rationalism.


Parmenides advocated that we should follow where reason takes us, even if the results are very contrary to our habits. Parmenides concluded that all reality would appear very different to our minds. He refers to what exists in the universal sense and then makes his own original cosmological and metaphysical thoughts that all that exists in the universe is essentially singular. According to him, the world does not seem singular, caused by humans who rely too much on their senses as an excuse, even though it is all just an illusion. The diversity seen by humans is actually just an illusion, because everything has only one essence.

Epistemology and Critique of Ancient Greek Mythology

Parmenides criticized ancient Greek mythology which explains how the process of creation of the universe. For him the explanation given by ancient Greek mythology is trapped by the appearance of the senses so that it is far from the truth caused by the illusion of the senses. He also criticized ancient Greek mythology which used the belief in ‘doxa’ or opinion as an attempt to achieve knowledge. He thought that doxa was a path full of contradictions that influenced knowledge to believe in something that was not real. For him the path of truth ‘aletheia’ or reality is the best path that must be taken by humans in achieving knowledge of the truth that refers to existence in order to approach knowledge that is truly real and not illusory.

Geometrical Manual

Geometrical Manual

This is a help-web to Spinoza Ethica [What it is about: Getting Started Reading Content] . Ethica, like every axiomatic deductive exposition, is a web. In logic and mathematics, every axiomatic deductive structure has a number of starting elements (definitions and axioms) and a number of end elements. Some end elements are chain-linked to all starting elements. Every element links back to some previous premiss-elements, and so on, until you are back at the starting elements. Generally, linking web pages, you can make reciprocal links and looped chains of links that bring you, through some pages, back to the original one. In a deductive structure, such things only happen when proofs are circular and hence the structure is flawed. The pure deductive structure of Ethica is modeled in the Pure Web packed for you to download in I found no loops in Ethica. This Pure Web is the origin of the on line notes Web you are now reading. But to make the notes Web, Ethica is merged again, linking to itself and to hundreds of external notes pages. So you are supposed to work with two webs: the downloaded Pure Web and an on-line notes Web. Note that while handling these two webs you may be closer than any reader in the past to what Spinoza, almost beyond reasonable doubt, did himself: he had his propositions on separate sheets and thus could at any moment easily reshuffle, select, subselect and insert propositions while grinding his lenses.

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The Pure Web (to download)

If you download the to your computer and import it in a web editor generating a clickable site map (like MS FrontPage and MS ExpressionWeb) you can click through screens as illustrated below, featuring the deductive elements als web pages. You can move an element-page to the centre, and click on an element-page to view it in the editing mode (then, if you want send it to your browser (type F12 in the web editors mentioned). The Pure Web exclusively models Spinoza’s own geometrical opinion concerning what follows from what, as transpires from what he refers to in his demonstrations.

A screen shot of the MS Expression Web links-view of the pure Webproposition {1p11} set centre.
N.B. the 
direction of reference is Left to Right, so the direction of inference is Right to Left

The arrows point to the deductive elements used in the deductive element from where the arrow originates. Hence the argument of Ethica runs to the left. On the left side you will see only propositions (.p..), since definitions (.d..) and axioms (.a..) are always starting points, hence not referring to anything. On the right side you typically see a mix of all types, propositions, axioms, definitions, and philosophical primitives where propositions usually form only a very small minority.

The On line Web

In the on-line web, where you are now, you can also click to notes, and the notes link back to elements not formally used as premises, which should assist the reader in evaluating the meaning of concepts. Understanding all concepts and their logical interrelations is the main challenge when studying Ethica. There are 76 defined concepts. To define them, thousands of other concepts are used, 52 of which have no clear and distinct meaning to every intelligent native English or Latin speaker at once. These 52 are designated philosophical primitivesEach has a note-page where you can click to, showing the concept used in one or more poignant contexts in Ethica.

To the expert

The Spinoza expert will probably go to the on-line notes Web All Entries-view to a locus under consideration and click around, then when things get serious, check the deductive structure in the downloaded “pure”-version to generate maps like the one above. The expert analyzing the overall structure benefits probably most of the geometrical report and its links.