Time Line PHiLES Culture  

-20 000

Lots of species extinct as a result of humans using spearheads.

-18 000

Ice age low sea level lures homo sapiens East China Bering Strait Alaska

-13 000

Start of crossing of the Bering strait by humans

-12 000

First domesticated animals (dogs)

-10 000

end of ice age

-10 000

advanced human hunting techniques make disappear elephants giant sloths lions camels and horses in the Americas


domestication of sheep


first pots


start of sowing domestication of plants


use of cow milk


start of agricultural revolution




first beer


first agricultural revolution finalised


start of mining melting and metallurgy (copper)


first weaving loons


first wine


first domesticated horses (not yet mounted)


plough with oxen in Europe


wheel (Sumeria)


Start of Use of Semitic language in Mesopotamia


Menes unites Egypt


Stone Henge


Large floods in Mesopotamia (Noah?)




clay tablet rooms in temples


first domesticated rice (India)


first ensurance (bottomry)


start of hieroglyphs


Egyptians sail out of the Red Sea


tea (China)


dough (bread) Egypt


education: lists of words and text tablets (Ur Mesopotamia)


domesticated potato in Peru


Crete: start of Knossos period


Trumpets (Egypt)


Abraham leaves Ur: the easy life in Ur (South Mesopotamia) is over for Semites: influence of Hammurabi of Babylon. First ever written legislation with severe punishment (mutilation impaling burning drowning). Echo of the expulsion from paradise.


Islamic claim: Abraham builds the original Ka'bah in Mecca and brings in the "black stone" given by God in the act of the expulsion from paradise to absorb man's sins. Hence it -such is claimed by Muslims- turned black through the ages.


Full European Bronze Age


two men on skis Norway)


First Suez canal (until AD 775)


Gilgamesh Epos


Trade between Mesopotamia and China


Start of Mass influx of Semite peoples in Palestine Bible claim: Jews sent off from Egyptian exile Moses.


Water clocks in Egypt (clepsidras)


Start of intensive trade between Egypt and East Africa (Hatshepsut)


metalled roads in the Middle East


Dorians conquer Peloponnesos with iron weapons


Start of use or iron


Kingdom of Jerusalem (David)


Salomon Temple (Kingdom of Jerusalem)


Homeros poet.


Full Iron Age in Europe


Earth thought of as spherical surface (Eratosthenes)


Assyrians conquer Samaria


Hesiodos poet Boeotia Greece


Jews conquered by Assyrians (Nebukadnessar II) sent -for 48 years- in exile in Babylon (still a paradise yes but not for the Jews)


Babylonians abduct Jews (Babylon exile)


Herakleitos philosopher Ephese Anatolia


Persians (Cyrus) defeat Assyrians conquer both Babylon and Palestine. Jews sent back to Palestine. Expansion of Persia to an unprecedented empire


Pythagoras Samos moved in his 48th year to Croton (Southern Italy)


Leukippus philosopher Miletus (now Turkey)


Anaxagoras philosopher Clazomenae (now Turkey)


Empedokles philosopher Sicily-Greece


Parmenides philosopher Elea South Italy




Demokritos philosopher


Plato philosopher Athens


Aristoteles philosopher Stagira Chalcidice


Epicurus philosopher Samos


Alexander the Great Semites part of Greek (Hellenistic) administrations


Euclides mathematician Alexandria


Livius historian Rome (died -204)


First books with sowed back (made from sheepskin as a result of an Egyptian ban of export of papyrus rolls the original form of what was called a book). Invention in Pergamum hence "parchment". The Egyptian ban is thought to have been the result of a lobby by the library of Alexandria aspiring to keep her monopoly in scholarship.


Cicero Latium


Expansion of Roman empire. Mediterranean Semites under Roman influence


Horatius Rome


Roman emperor Augustus (Died -14)


Roman emperor Tiberius (died -37)


Roman historian Tacitus (died 120)


First use of the mathematical number 0 (zero) by Maya's


Augustinus Algeria


Semites (Christians) destroy the until then surviving daughter-library of Alexandria (main destruction 48BC by perpetrators not unambiguously identified when Caesar and Cleopatra took power)


Boethius Rome


Mohammed born in Mecca. Start of two centuries of Arab conquests ending East to Pakistan West to Portugal and Spain..


First use of the mathematical number 0 (zero) in India


Semites (Muslims this time) set fire on the last remains of the library of Alexandria


Molotov cocktail: invented by Callicus a Syrian. The Arabs attacking Byzantium were not interested the emperor of van Byzantium was. His boats featured flame-throwers (put on pressure by a two person hand pump) on the front deck. Hence "Greek fire".


Arabs establish themselves everywhere as local elites united in a pan-Arab trade federation. Security of trade by using the sakk (check) for payment and Koran ruling trade affairs: no interest on loans. An extremely wealthy technologically unprecedented zero interest rate commercial society.


Serfdom starts to replace slavery in medieval Germany.


Thomas Aquinas Paris


Marco Polo travels to China. "One should know that from the times of the creation of Adam until today no man heathen Saracen Christian or whatever from whatever birth or generation has ever seen so many of the greatest things and investigated them as Marco Polo" (Preface of "Il Millione" by Rusticello of Pisa).


paper money issued in China


Rabelais b.


Throughout most of Europe household slavery persisted well into the late Middle Ages and even later and only gradually died out.


Pope of Rome Sublimus Dei: Non-whites are rational beings and potential Christians


England prohibits Slave Trade


The catholic church admits practically the lawfulness of interest on loans even for ecclesiastical property though it has been thought too tough to promulgate a doctrinal decree on the subject. See the replies of the Vatican dated 18 August 1830 31 August 1831 17 January 1838 26 March 1840 and 28 February 1871; and that of the catholic "Sacred Penitentiary" of 11 February 1832 ("Collectio Lacensis" (Acta et decreta s. conciliorum recentiorum) VI col. 677 Appendix to the Council of Pondicherry; and in the "Enchiridion" of Bucceroni.


England forbids slavery (slave trade 1987)


USA forbids slavery


Barbed wire (inventor: Glidden Joseph F.)


League of Nations founded. Some parts of Africa and much of the Islamic world retained slavery at the end of World War I. For this reason the League of Nations and later the United Nations took the final extinction of slavery to be one of their obligations. During the interwar period the league had considerable success in Africa with the assistance of the colonial powers.


Slavery abolished in Liberia and Ethiopia.


Slavery made illegal in the Arabian Peninsula