pp1d01 natura

Natura occurs in 3 different senses: Go To (in-page links):
Sense 1: natura-essentia, predicate (prevailing)
Sense 2: natura-substantia
, noun (rare)
Sense 3: natura extensa, noun (1 occurrence)


Sense 1: (prevailing)         natura-essentia
Meaning As in "sua natura": "its nature". "Nature"  is [mng-eqv.] essence.
Mantras [what is] natura seu [mng eqv] essentia
modus qui Dei naturam certo et determinato modo exprimit
Related concepts {2d02 essentia}
Occurrence [geomap (all senses)] 
{1d01  causa sui}                                                                               ... two highly technical and complicated strings expressing the same meaning ...
 ... that of which the essence involves existence, or that of which the nature is only conceivable as existent.  ... id cujus essentia involvit existentiam sive [mng-eqv] id cujus natura non potest concipi nisi existens.
Attributes are defined {1d03} as "the essence of substance" but are later also called the "nature of substance" {1p05}.  
{1p01 substantia prior}                                                                 ... natura used in sense 1 ...
 ... Substance is by nature prior to its modifications [Lat: affectiones] ... PROPOSITIO I: Substantia prior est natura suis affectionibus
{1p05 in rerum natura}                                                                  ... Elwes translates rerum natura (literally: "the nature of things") as "universe" and naturae as "nature" (here meaning, roughly, "kind", "sort", "character", Dutch: "aard", German "Art", French "esp├Ęce" "sorte" "genre") ... the [mng-eqv]-equation of natura and attributi is only in loci where the nature of substance is the subject ... 
 ... There cannot exist in the universe two or more substances having the same nature or attribute.  ... In rerum natura non possunt dari duae aut [excl non-exh] plures  substantiae ejusdem naturae sive  [mng-eqv]  attributi.
{1p07 substanti existere}                                                             ... "essentia involvit necessario existentiam " means the same as "naturam pertinet existere" ...
 ... its essence necessarily involves existence, or existence belongs to its nature.  ... ipsius essentia involvit necessario existentiam sive  [mng-eqv]  ad ejus naturam pertinet existere ...
{1p19 Deus aeterna}                                                                      ... "ad naturam pertinet"  means the same as "ex definitione sequitur" ...
 ...  existence appertains to its nature, or (what is the same thing) follows from its definition ...  ...  ad cujus naturam pertinet existere sive [mng-eqv] (quod idem est) ex cujus definitione sequitur ...
{4d05 contrarios affectus}                                                           ... natura logically opposed to per accidens ...
 ... contraries, not by nature, but by accident ...  ... nec natura sed per accidens sunt contrarii ...
{5p25 Summus est tertio cognitionis genere}                     ... for the mind, virtus, potentia, natura [sense 1], and conatus turn out all equivalent ...
 ... the highest virtue of the mind, that is  ... the power, or nature, or  ... highest endeavour of the mind ...  ...  summa mentis virtus hoc est [mng-eqv]  ... mentis potentia seu [mng-eqv]  natura sive [prf-eqv]  ... .summus conatus est [mng-eqv]  ...
{4p61 cupiditas ex ratione excessum nequit}                    ... essentia and natura mean the same ...
 ...  the actual essence or nature of man ...  ... hominis essentia seu  [mng-eqv.] natura ...

Sense 2 (rare)

        natura-substantia
Meaning Natura is [mng-eqv] substantia is [prf-eqv] deus. Proof of equivalence: Deus is defined as "a substance" {1d06}, then {1p14} claims that there is only one substance.
Subsets (kinds) natura naturans, natura naturata
Mantras [what is] rerum natura
Related concepts Deus, substantia
Occurrence [geomap (all senses)] {1p05 in rerum natura}
1p29s natura naturans                                                                 ... (Natura naturans = God = natura-sense 2 = substance) versus (Natura naturata : = modi of attributes) ... the [mng-eqv]-equation of natura and attributi is contextual only: on where the nature of substance is the subject, nature is equivalent to attributes ...
 ... ..by nature viewed as active we should understand that which is in itself, and is conceived through itself, or those attributes of substance, which express eternal and infinite essence, in other words  ... .God, in so far as he is considered as a free cause.
By nature viewed as passive I understand all that which follows from the necessity of the nature of God, or of any of the attributes of God, that is, all the modes of the attributes of God, in so far as they are considered as things which are in God, and which without God cannot exist or be conceived.
 ... .. Naturam naturantem  nobis intelligendum est id quod in se est et per se concipitur sive [mng eqv] talia substantiae attributa quae aeternam et infinitam essentiam exprimunt hoc est  ...  Deus quatenus ut causa libera consideratur. Per naturatam autem intelligo id omne quod ex necessitate Dei naturae sive [mng eqv] uniuscujusque Dei attributorum sequitur hoc est omnes Dei attributorum modos quatenus considerantur ut res quae in Deo sunt et quae sine Deo nec esse nec concipi possunt.
{1p31 Intellectus naturatam naturantem}                             ... Intellectus actu refers to modes of the attribute of thought, modi cogitandi (operations of the mind), among others like amor, cupiditas, and other passions-emotions {3d03 affectu}. There are also active affections see {3p58}. intellectus actu is not actio but passio.
 ... The intellect in function, whether finite or infinite, just like will, desire, love, &c., should be referred to passive nature and not to active nature.  ... Intellectus actu sive [excl exh] is finitus sit sive [excl exh] infinitus, ut et voluntas, cupiditas, amor etc. ad Naturam naturatam, non vero ad naturantem referri debent.
 ... intellect ... a certain mode of thinking, differing from other modes, such as love, desire, &c.  ... .must  ... be referred to nature passive rather than to nature active, as must also the other modes of thinking ...  ... intellectum enim  ... certum tantum modum cogitandi, qui modus ab aliis scilicet cupiditate, amore, etc.  ... concipi debet ut sine ipso nec esse nec concipi possit  ... ad Naturam naturatam, non vero naturantem referri debet ut etiam reliqui modi cogitandi  ...
{4p04 homo natura}                                                                       ... "naturae pars" sense 2, "suam naturam" sense 1 ... .
PROP. IV. It is impossible, that man should not be a part of Nature, or that he should be capable of undergoing no changes, save such as can be understood through his nature only as their adequate cause. PROPOSITIO IV: Fieri non potest ut homo non sit naturae pars et ut nullas possit pati mutationes nisi quae per solam suam naturam possint intelligi quarumque adaequata sit causa.
Sense 3 (1 occurrence)         natura extensa
Meaning Natura as used in the opposition circulus in natura ^ idea circuli in 2p07s substantia cogitans et substantia extensa una
Related concepts extensio
Occurrence [geomap (all senses)] 1 occurrence of this sense
2p07s substantia cogitans et substantia extensa una       ...  puzzling, if not dangerous quote  ...  in the expression in natura existens the term natura is used, absolutely unique in Ethica, as extended nature  ...  but at the end of the quote, the expression totius naturae refers again to the rare but not unique meaning of natura-substantia  ...  the attribute of extension (harbouring res extensae), is here associated with an expression unique in Ethica: substantia extensa. The attribute of thought however is associated NOT with res cogitandi but is called substantia cogitans, referring NOT to idea = res cogitandi but to cogitatio-operatio, the operation that produces ideas. A few words further down, in "idea illius modi", the opposition is changed back from cogitatio-operatio to idea ( cogitatio-res) .  Res is used here as res sense 3, that is: NOT to referring to modi, as it elsewhere does in expressions like res extensa or rem cogitantem in {1p14c2},  but for the substantial thing that expresses itself in two modi (1. an extended modus and 2. a modus cogitandi)
 ...  substance thinking and substance extended are one and the same substance, comprehended now through one attribute, now through the other. So, also, a mode of extension and the idea of that mode are one and the same thing, though expressed in two ways  ...  ...  substantia cogitans et substantia extensa una eademque est substantia quae jam sub hoc jam sub illo attributo comprehenditur. Sic etiam modus extensionis et idea illius modi una eademque est res sed duobus modis expressa ...
 ...  For instance, a circle existing in nature, and the idea of a circle existing, which is also in God, are one and the same thing displayed through different attributes. Thus, whether we conceive nature under the attribute of extension, or under the attribute of thought, or under any other attribute, we shall find the same order, or one and the same chain of causes-that is, the same things following in either case ...   ...  Exempli gratia circulus in natura existens et idea circuli existentis quae etiam in Deo est, una eademque est res quae per diversa attributa explicatur et ideo sive naturam sub
extensionis sive sub attributo cogitationis sive sub alio quocunque concipiamus, unum eundemque ordinem sive unam eandemque causarum connexionem hoc est easdem res invicem sequi reperiemus.
 ... God is the cause of an idea-for instance, of the idea of a circle,-in so far as he is a thinking thing; and of a circle, in so far as he is an extended thing, simply because the actual being of the idea of a circle can only be perceived as a proximate cause through another mode of thinking, and that again through another, and so on to infinity;  ... Deus sit causa ideae exempli gratia circuli quatenus tantum est res cogitans et circuli quatenus tantum est res extensa nisi quia esse formale ideae circuli non nisi per alium cogitandi modum tanquam causam proximam et ille iterum per alium et sic in infinitum, potest percipi
so that, so long as we consider things as modes of thinking, we must explain the order of the whole of nature, or the whole chain of causes, through the attribute of thought only. ita ut quamdiu res ut cogitandi modi considerantur, ordinem totius naturae sive causarum connexionem per solum cogitationis attributum explicare debemus
 ...  in so far as we consider things as modes of extension, we must explain the order of the whole of nature through the attributes of extension only ... et quatenus ut modi extensionis considerantur, ordo etiam totius naturae per solum extensionis attributum explicari debet ... 

Equivalence claims involving natura
{1d01} [notes] 1. cause of itself  2. that of which the essence involves existence 3. that of which the nature cannot be understood except in state of existence 1. causa sui 2. [id cujus] essentia involvit existentiam 3. id cujus natura non potest concipi nisi existens.
{1d02} [notes] 1. finite in its kind 2, That thing which can be limited by another thing of the same nature. 1. in suo genere finita 2. [Ea res] quae alia ejusdem naturae terminari potest.
{1d07} [notes] 1. free 2. that thing which exists solely by the necessity of its own nature, and of which the action is determined by itself alone. 1. libera 2. Ea res  quae ex sola suae naturae necessitate existit et a se sola ad agendum determinatur.
{1d07} [notes] 1. necessary 2. constrained, 3. that thing which is determined by something external to itself to a fixed and definite method of existence or action. 1. Necessaria 2. coacta 3. [ea res] quae ab alio determinatur ad existendum et operandum certa ac determinata ratione.
{1p05} [About substances] 1. nature 2. attributes [De substantiis] 1. naturae 2. attributi.
{1p07} 1. be its own cause 2. its essence necessarily involves existence 3. existence belongs to its nature. 1. est causa sui 2. ipsius essentia involvit necessario existentiam 3. ad ejus naturam pertinet existere.
{1p17} 1. solely from the necessity of the divine nature 2. solely from the laws of his nature,  1. Ex sola divinae naturae necessitate 2. ex solis ejusdem naturae legibus
{1p19} 1. God 2. substance, which necessarily exists 3. [that of which] existence appertains to its nature 4. [that of which existence] follows from its definition 5. [that which] is eternal 1. Deus 2. substantia quae necessario existit 3. cujus naturam pertinet existere 4. ex cujus definitione sequitur ipsum existere 5. est aeternus.
{1p33} 1. If things could have been of a different nature 2. [If things] have been conditioned to act in a different way, so that the order of nature would have been different, 1. [si res] alterius naturae potuissent esse 2. [si res] alio modo ad operandum determinari ut naturae ordo alius esset
{1p36} 1. nature 2. essence 1. naturam 2. essentiam
{2p01} 1. Particular thoughts 2. this and that thought 3. modes which, in a certain conditioned manner, express the nature of God 1. Singulares cogitationes 2. haec et illa cogitatio 2. modi qui Dei naturam certo et determinato modo exprimunt
{2p11c} [about God = natura-sense 2 = substance] 1. quatenus per naturam humanae mentis explicatur 2. quatenus humanae mentis essentiam constituit [De Deo] 1. quatenus per naturam humanae mentis explicatur 2. quatenus humanae mentis essentiam constituit
{2p19} [About God = natura-sense 2 = substance and the human mind] 1. God has the idea of the human body 2. [God = natura-sense 2 = substance] knows the human body, in so far as he is affected by very many other ideas, and not in so far as he constitutes the nature of the human mind [De deo et menti humane] 1. [Deus] ideam corporis humani habet 2. [Deus] corpus humanum cognoscit quatenus plurimis aliis ideis affectus est et non quatenus naturam humanae mentis co constituit
{2p29} [About the ideas of affections of the human body] 1. do not involve an adequate knowledge of the said body 2. does not adequately express its nature 3. they do not adequately agree with the nature of the mind 4. the ideas of such ideas do not adequately express the nature of the human mind 5. [the ideas of such ideas] do not involve an adequate knowledge thereof. [De ideis affectionis corporis humani] 1. adaequatam ipsius corporis cognitionem non involvit 2. ejus naturam adaequate non exprimit 3. cum natura mentis non convenit adaequate 4. hujus ideae ideam adaequate humanae mentis naturam non exprimit 5. adaequatam ejus cognitionem non involvit.
{3d02} [notes] 1. acting 2. anything takes place, either within us or externally to us, whereof we are the adequate cause  3. through our nature something takes place within us or externally to us, which can through our nature alone be clearly and distinctly understood. 1. agere 2. aliquid in nobis aut [excl exh] extra nos fit cujus adaequata sumus causa 3. ex nostra natura aliquid in nobis aut [excl exh] extra nos sequitur quod per eandem solam potest clare et distincte intelligi.
{3d02} [notes] 1. Being passive as regards something 2. something takes place within us, or follows from our nature externally of which we are only the partial cause. 1. pati aliquid 2. in nobis aliquid fit vel [non-excl non-exh] ex nostra natura aliquid sequitur cujus nos non nisi partialis sumus causa
{3p07} [About res] 1. wherefore the power of any given thing 2. the endeavour whereby, either alone or with other things, it acts, or endeavours to act 3. the power or endeavour, wherewith it endeavours to persist in its own being, 4. the given or actual essence of the thing in question. [De rei] 1.quare cujuscunque rei potentia 2. conatus quo ipsa vel [excl exh]  sola vel [excl exh] cum aliis quidquam agit vel [non-excl non-exh] agere conatur 3. potentia sive [mng eqv]  conatus quo in suo esse perseverare conatur 4. ipsius rei datam sive [mng eqv]  actualem essentiam.
{3p55} 1. The essence of the mind only affirms that which the mind is, or can do 2.  it is the mind's nature to imagine only such things as assert its power of activity 1. Mentis essentia id tantum quod mens est et potest, affirmat 2. de natura mentis est ea tantummodo imaginari quae ipsius agendi potentiam ponunt
{3p56} 1. imagine 2. be affected by an emotion, which involves the nature of our own body, and the nature of an external body. 1. imaginamur 2. afficimur affectu qui naturam nostri corporis et naturam corporis externi involvit.
{3p56} 1. desire 2.  each man's essence or nature, in so far as it is conceived as determined to a particular action by any given modification [Lat: affectiones] of itself 1. cupiditas 2. ipsa uniuscujusque essentia seu [mng eqv] natura quatenus ex data quacunque ejus constitutione determinata concipitur ad aliquid agendum
{3p56}
and elsewhere
1. essence 2. nature 1. essentia 2. natura
{4d05} [notes] 1. emotions  conflicting in directions 2. [emotions] which draw a man in different ways, though they are of the same kind are contraries, not by nature, but by accident. 1. contrarios affectus in sequentibus 2. [affectus] qui hominem diversum trahunt quamvis ejusdem sint generis, nec natura sed per accidens contrarii.
{4d08} [notes
defective]
1. virtue 2. power 2. a man's nature or essence, in so far as it has the power of effecting what can only be understood by the laws of that nature.  1. virtutem 2. potentiam 3. ipsa hominis essentia seu [mng eqv] natura quatenus potestatem habet quaedam efficiendi quae per solas ipsius naturae leges possunt intelligi
{4p04} 1. God 2. nature 1. Dei 2. naturae
{4p35c2} [About people] 1. seeks what is useful to him 2. endeavours to preserve himself 3. endowed with virtue 4. endowed with power to act according to the laws of his own nature 5. live in obedience to reason. [De hominum] 1. utile quaerit 2. se conservare conatur 3. virtute praeditus [est] 4. potentia praeditus est ad agendum ex suae naturae legibus 5. [potentia praeditus est ad] vivendum ex ductu rationis
{4p61} 1. human nature considered in itself alone would be able to exceed itself 2. would be able to do more than it can 1. posset ergo humana natura in se sola considerata se ipsam excedere 2. plus posset quam potest
{5p25} 1. [the mind's highest] virtue 2  ... power ...  3  ... nature ...  4.  ... endeavour ...  5. understand things by the third kind of knowledge.  1. summa mentis virtus 2. [summa] mentis potentia. 3. [summa mentis] natura 4. summus conatus 5. res intelligere tertio cognitionis genere